Typhoon Haiyan/Yolanda Camp Coordination and Camp Management (CCCM) DRAFT Strategy
This document aims to provide CCCM cluster member s and stakeholder s with a framework for the coordination of humanitarian assistance targeted to displaced populations residing in planned or unplanned human settlements and ensuring these sites offer standard basic humanitarian and dignified living conditions in the most affected areas immediately following the onset of the typhoon while also building the foundations for recovery, rehabilitation and development interventions.
This document will allow partners to develop their own strategies in accordance with their own respective mandates and capacities, within an overarching, common framework, in support of the Government of Philippines-led response.
Mindful of the complexity of the on-going response and the challenges and delays encountered in gathering relevant baseline data, the CCCM cluster has drafted the present strategy specific for the first six (6) months of emergency humanitarian response. This strategy will be updated accordingly, as information becomes available, in close coordination will relevant stakeholders.
At the height of the relief operations, a total of 4,796 evacuation centers were utilized and provided temporary shelter to 261,044 families or 1.24 million persons while 827,503 families or 3 million persons were served outside the centers. To date (16 november 2013) 1,531 evacuation centers are still open and providing temporary shelter to 72,670 families or 348,544 persons. Other displaced families (568,089) or individuals (2.69 million) opted to stay with their friends and families (Department of Social Welfare and Development - Disaster Risk Reduction and Response Operations Office Report 6pm 16/11/2013).
Based on ongoing assessments, affected areas include, but are not restricted to Tolosa south of Tacloban City, Leyte province, Daanbantayan and Bantayan Island, Cebu province, Conception, Iloilo province and Busuanga, Palawan province.
Under the leadership of DSWD and in coordination with humanitarian partners, the CCCM cluster will initially ensure the delivery of lifesaving humanitarian assistance and then support voluntary, dignified, and sustainable return for the majority of the population. The CCCM cluster will also identify durable solutions for those facing extended displacement.
- Rapid Improvement of Living Conditions for Displaced Population
- Rapid Provision of Capacity Building Support
- Facilitation of Return and promotion of Durable Solutions
1.1 Living conditions in evacuation centers, spontaneous settlements and other temporary settlements are rapidly improved by sectoral service providers through coordination based on identified and mapped needs and through direct provision of support in the event that no partner is available to provide essential assistance.
1.2 Provision of data showing gender, age, and disability disaggregated demographics relating to displaced population as well as the availability or lack thereof of services, protection issues, expected duration of displacement, and other key information.
2.1 Site managers, local government representatives and other key stakeholders are provided with technical support on site management, information management and coordination to ensure adequate protection of displaced population prioritizing vulnerable populations as defined in coordination with the Protection cluster.
2.2 Establishment and maintenance of central and field level hub coordination structures aiming at all actors and humanitarian activities related to IDP sites and tracking of internal displacement.
3.1 Facilitation of voluntary, safe, dignified and sustainable return based on the identification of durable solutions for displaced persons residing in sites according to return options and nature of displacement, thus facilitating a return to normalcy within the affected community.
3.2 Link displaced population seeking to return with organizations providing services to ensure sustainable return.
3.3 Consolidation of sites accommodating longer term IDPs while advocating for dignified and durable solutions to prevent protracted displacement.
- Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) residing in planned, spontaneous and other types of human settlement sites derived from the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan.
- CCCM cluster members and service providers in settlement sites.
Rapid Improvement of Living Conditions for displaced population:
- DTM rolled out in all critically affected areas including evacuation centers, planned sites, and spontaneous settlements
- Coordination with other clusters and service providers to direct assistance to priority displacement sites
- Training and deployment of enumerators in all areas with evacuation centers, tent cities and spontaneous settlements.
- Consolidation, analysis and dissemination of information gathered through the DTM
- Regular DTM reports and other information products (spreadsheets, maps) shared with the humanitarian community. Using needs assessment data collected and analyzed through the DTM, refer information of needs and gaps to relevant sectoral and cluster service providers for the coordination of integrated and targeted service provision.
- Direct provision of sector-specific support as provider of last resort.
- Call center set up and other feedback mechanisms put in place to allow displaced communities to communicate to service providers.
- Feedback from displaced population gathered, analyzed and used to evaluate ongoing response efforts and guide the development of future initiatives.
Rapid Provision of Capacity Building Support
- Training on CCCM provided to site managers to ensure that assistance meets minimum standards and is delivered as timely and appropriately as possible.
- Training and advocacy for the use of the joint Evacuation Center Guidelines.
- Technical assistance on CCCM made available to stakeholders as needed.
Facilitation of Return through Durable Solutions
- Identification of return options based on type of land tenure, environmental conditions, recovery options among other factors.
- Identification of support to facilitate return for specific cases requiring catered assistance.
- Consolidation of sites into resettlement and temporary accommodation for cases that have no immediate return options.
The CCCM cluster will work closely with the Shelter, Health, WASH, Protection and other clusters to ensure that the target populations are prioritized for service delivery.
CCCM cluster will facilitate camp decommissioning, return and reintegration processes, reducing negative environmental impacts, as well as the right to housing and property restitution as stipulated in the Pinheiro principles. These principles affirm that displaced persons have the right to be compensated for any housing, land and/or property that is factually impossible to restore as determined by an independent, impartial tribunal.
APPLYING THE GUIDING PRINCIPLES ON INTERNAL DISPLACEMENT & RETURN TO THE RESPONSE
- Relocation should be voluntary
Every internally displaced person has the right to liberty and freedom to choose his or her place of residence. In areas declared by competent/mandated government authorities to be unsafe, a durable solution needs to be developed in close consultation with the affected population and the Government.
- Access to information and participation
Local authorities should ensure that displaced persons receive regular and relevant information regarding the process and progress of the humanitarian activities being developed/ implemented to address their needs. It is important that communities get clear information on “who is doing what, where and when?” with regard to the on-going response. In this light, the government and the humanitarian community must have a clear and concise message to share with the population. There must also be clear feedback mechanisms and a regular monitoring of information flows.
Moreover, the affected population must be provided with full, free and impartial information regarding all plans for relocation and resettlement. Authorities will ensure the full participation of displaced persons in the planning and management of any return, resettlement or relocation process.
The Government of the Philippines is committed to the full disclosure of information on the reasons and procedures for the displacement and, when applicable, also on compensation and relocation. Free and informed consent of those persons to be displaced shall be sought and the authorities concerned shall endeavor to involve those affected, particularly women, in the planning and management of their relocation or return.
In the event of a disagreement, IDPs have the right to an effective remedy; including the review of such decisions by appropriate judicial authorities.
- Access to humanitarian assistance and basic services
All displaced persons must have full, free and unimpeded access to humanitarian assistance prioritizing individuals and households with vulnerabilities. This includes: essential food and safe water; basic shelter and housing; appropriate clothing; and essential medical services, medicines, and sanitation. The relocation, resettlement or return of displaced persons should not interfere with their access to these basic rights.
Through the rollout of the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM), the cluster will ensure that updated information on IDPs, including basic demographic composition and living conditions/access to services in evacuation centers, tent cities and spontaneous sites, is disseminated among humanitarian actors to guide the development of multi-sectoral interventions for this target population.
Moreover, the cluster will advocate that beneficiaries play an active role throughout the promoting self-recovery and building resilience among the affected populations.
- Access to education
All displaced children should receive access to free education. Education and training facilities should be made available to internally displaced persons, in particular adolescents and women, as soon as conditions permit.
Access to education is often impeded when IDP’s use schools as displacement sites. There often is pressure to relocate the individuals in order to reopen the schools and create greater normalcy for children. This pressure can result in a relocation that provides an adequate interim solution, but not a sustainable one. Where possible the CCCM cluster will work with relevant government counterparts at the national and local levels to reduce the risk of secondary displacement.
- Access to health services
Without any discrimination apart from medical needs assessments, all wounded, sick and disabled displaced persons should receive medical care with minimal delays. Factors, such as poor living conditions, limited availability of hygienic water and sanitation services, as well as food, and disruption of [often already limited] primary health care services, IDPs are particularly vulnerable to infectious diseases, such as diarrheal conditions; under-nutrition and complications arising from non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. Special attention should be paid to reproductive health services, especially targeting women and infants. Refurbishment and capacity building of district, municipal and barangay health facilities should be prioritized, as well as shelter and resettlement support for healthcare workers, so that health services for the IDPs can be reinforced in a timely manner.
- Access to livelihoods
Internally displaced persons have the right to freely seek opportunities for employment and to participate in economic activities. An intentions survey focused on land renters, agricultural workers, and displaced individuals will seek to develop a better understanding of livelihood options.
The CCCM cluster is advocating for the development of cash for working programming for women located within temporary settlements with the focus on creating items required for the local construction trade, such as: nipa and inokuk shingles as well as the production of amakan when still available. Livelihood programming for men is also under consideration
- Family unity will be respected
The fundamental principle of family unity must be upheld at all times. Every effort should be taken to ensure that families stay together during the relocation, resettlement or return of displaced persons. Special attention should be paid to care arrangements for unaccompanied or separated children to ensure that they are relocated with existing care givers in the community.
- Protect women, children and groups with special needs
Special attention should also be paid to the protection needs of expectant mothers, mothers with young children, unaccompanied and separated children, women-headed and child-headed households, single parent households, the elderly, the sick, and persons with disability during return, relocation or resettlement. In particular, attention should be paid to protection from rape, torture and acts of gender-specific violence and forced prostitution, as well as sexual exploitation and forced labour of children.
- Right to documentation
The local authorities should ensure that displaced persons have access to all the necessary documentation for the full enjoyment of their legal rights. These include: personal identification documents, birth certificates, marriage certificates, proof of land tenure and land and property ownership documentation. The authorities should facilitate the issuance of new documents or the replacement of documents lost in the course of displacement. Women and men should have equal rights to documentation and the right for documentation to be issued in their own names.
Authorities shall issue new documents or replace documents lost during the displacement without imposing unreasonable conditions. For example, IDP’s will not be required to return to their place of origin in order to obtain government documents. Men and woman have equal rights to obtain these documents.
- Protect the civilian character of all camps
The civilian, non-political, humanitarian nature of camps should be protected at all times. Humanitarian assistance should be provided in accordance with the principles of humanity and impartiality and without discrimination on the grounds of race, religion, ethnicity, or political affiliation.
- Avoid multiple relocations
Wherever possible the local authorities should avoid moving people multiple times. Ideally, families should be moved only once to the same land where permanent shelters will be eventually be constructed, or to land in the same vicinity as future permanent settlements. This component is also highlighted under the guiding principle ‘Access to Education’ written above.
- Respect cultural sensitivity
All relocation plans should be sensitive to the ethnic, religious, cultural and political composition of the displaced population. Every effort should be taken to ensure that the needs of displaced populations are dealt with in a fair and egalitarian way, without discrimination.
Specific accommodations may be accorded to indigenous populations in line with The Indigenous Peoples’ Rights Act of 1997. In case of displacement, the government will provide to indigenous populations a suitable area with temporary life support systems. These populations will retain the right to return. If their ancestral domain is unsafe then security of tenure over land where they are resettled should be given as well as basic services and livelihood assistance.
- Provide assistance to host families
Humanitarian relief assistance should be provided to families hosting displaced people. Currently insufficient data exists to determine the extent to which families are hosting IDP families. This practice should be supported through provision of support to the IDP families as well as the families hosting them.
- Return, Resettlement and Reintegration
Authorities, including the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), Department of Health (DOH), the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG), and other appropriate government agencies, have the duty and responsibility to assist returned and/or resettled IDPs to recover, to the extent possible, their property and possessions which they left behind or were dispossessed of upon their displacement. These authorities will assist IDP’s to return voluntarily, in safety and with dignity, to homes or places of habitual residence, or to resettle voluntarily. When recovery of such property and possessions is not possible, competent authorities shall provide or assist these persons in obtaining appropriate compensation or another form of just reparation. IDPs’ right of not being forcefully returned or resettled to areas where their life, safety and/or health would be at risk should be protected.
Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs): “Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border." (Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, Introduction, para. 2)
Evacuation Centers: This type of settlement is where displaced persons find accommodation in pre-existing public buildings and community facilities, for example, in schools, barracks, community centers, town halls, gymnasiums, hotels, churches, warehouses, disused factories, and unfinished buildings. They are often used when displacement occurs inside a city itself, or when there are significant flows of displaced people into a city or town. Often, mass shelter is intended as temporary or transit accommodation.
Planned Sites: They are formal settlements using temporary shelter with an organized management structure in place.
Spontaneous Settlements: They are displaced communities or displaced groups which may settle in unplanned areas building shelters with makeshift materials, independent of assistance from local government or the humanitarian community.
 The local government code of 1991 has devolved basic disaster response service to the local government units (LGUs)
 Office of the President of the Philippines: http://opapp.gov.ph/resources/indigenous-peoples%E2%80%99-rights-act-1997
 Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement